Guide to performance tuning the M54 engine from BMW

History of the M54 Engine

The M54 was produced between 2000 and 2006, and replaced the N52.

The S54 performance version of this engine was fitted to the Z3 and Z4 cars.

It was a silky smooth straight 6 and didn't change much during its 6 year lifespan.

It gained much respect and won accolades in its early life.

Notable alterations were an increase in displacement (bore and stroke adjustments) on some models which affected power output but they share similar parts and had a common 6500rpm rev limit.

  • M54B22
    2,171 cc 168 hp @6100 rpm 155 lbft @3500 rpm 2000–2006
  • M54B25
    2,494 cc 189 hp @6000 rpm 181 lbft @3500 rpm 2000–2006
  • M54B30
    2,979 cc 228 hp @5900 rpm 221 lbft @3500 rpm 2000–2006
  • S54B32
    3,246 cc 343 hp @7,900 rpm 269 lbft @4900 rpm 2000–2008

The engines were fitted to quite a wide cross section of BMW's


  • 2000–2006 E46 320i, 320Ci
  • 2000–2003 E39 520i
  • 2000–2002 E36/7 Z3 2.2i
  • 2003–2005 E85 Z4 2.2i
  • 2003–2005 E60/E61 520i


M54 engines are great to work on and respond well to camshaft upgrades and mapping.
  • 2000–2002 E36/7 Z3 2.5i
  • 2000–2006 E46 325i, 325xi, 325Ci
  • 2000–2004 E46/5 325ti
  • 2000–2004 E39 525i
  • 2003–2005 E60/E61 525i, 525xi
  • 2003–2006 E83 X3 2.5i
  • 2002–2005 E85 Z4 2.5i


  • 2000–2006 E46 330i, 330xi, 330Ci
  • 2000–2004 E39 530i
  • 2000–2002 E36/7 Z3 3.0i
  • 2003–2005 E60 530i
  • 2002–2005 E85 Z4 3.0i
  • 2003–2006 E83 X3 3.0i
  • 2000–2006 E53 X5 3.0i
  • 2002–2005 E65/E66 730i, 730Li
  • 2000–2002 Wiesmann MF 30

Best M54 mods

When talking about the best & greatest mods for your engine, we are going to parts that give the best value for money.

Altering your cam will make a dramatic difference to the engine power band. Choosing a higher performance cam profile raises the power band accordingly.

A stroker kit is a great way of increasing engine capacity and a good way to up the power on the M54B22 & M54B25 to match that of the B30.

Fast road camshafts commonly push up the power across the rpm range, you may sacrifice a little low end bhp but the higher rpm power will improve.

Race camshafts, push up the higher rpm power band but as a result the car will not idle smoothly and low end power nearly always suffers.

On a road car you need to match your power band to your cars usage. We rarely find a Motorsport and race cam is a pleasure to live with when driving in heavy traffic.

Some engines respond better to extreme cam durations than others. The ECU mapping and injectors and fuel pump also have a large bearing on the bhp gains you'll achieve.

Longer valve durations can alter the bhp band and on most engines the exhaust and intake durations do not need to match, although most cams and tuners use matched pairs there are some advantages to extending the intake or exhaust durations.

M54 Remaps

Remaps will help unlock the full potential of all the mods you've fitted to your M54. It will usually give around 30% more power on turbocharged vehicles and 15% on NASP engines, but your mileage will vary depending on the mods you've done and the condition of your engine.

Getting air into the M54 engine is vital to any tuning project.

Headers take the air from the filter and allow it to be drawn into the engine.

Shape and flow rate of the headers can make a large difference to fuel atomization and engine efficiency.

Most intake headers are crying out for an upgrade, although some makers provide reasonably well designed headers.

Increasing the M54 valve size, doing some port matching and head flowing will also improve power, and more importantly will allow you to get a better power increase on other mods.

M54 Turbo upgrades

It is possible to add a turbo to the M54 but it is very costly and time consuming so I would advice against it.

The M54 is designed as a high performance NASP engine and a turbo would require so much work to fit and get working we just don't think it is worth the effort.

The high compression ratio is your no 1 enemy.

The more air to get into an engine, the more fuel it can burn and uprating the induction with a turbocharger upgrade makes massive power gains.

NASP engines need quite a lot of work when you add a turbo, so we have a separate guide to help you take into account the pros and cons of going this route on your BMW M54


Fuel injectors and fuel pump will usually need to be upgraded when you start going beyond 20% of a power increase.

So if you have done some head work, increased the engine capacity and added a fast road cam you might be hitting the limits of the OEM injectors.

It is important to over specify your injector capacity. Most tuners will take the fuel need and add another 20% when fitting an injector, this allows for injector deterioration and gives a little spare capacity should the engine need more fuel.

M54 Exhaust

You only need to upgrade your exhaust if your current exhaust is creating a restriction.

Most OEM exhausts flow quite well even on modest power gains, but when you start pushing up the power levels you will need to get a better flowing exhaust.

Gains from a sports exhaust on the M54 are minimal at best you'll see around 5% more power.

Typically exhaust restrictions come around the catalyst and filters installed, so adding a higher flowing sports alternative will help avoid this restriction.

Weakspots and problem areas on the M54

The M54 engines are generally reliable and solid as long as they are regularly serviced and maintained.

Regular oil changes are vital on the M54, especially when tuned and will help extend the life and reliability of the engine. BMW recommends 15000 miles, but we would prefer to see 10,000 between oil changes.

VANOS seals can go which will cause stalls when cold, erratic engine idling and loss of low rev range power.

The DISA Valve should be checked regularly, especially if you have poor fuel economy, a rough or lumpy drive and a loud rattling noise.

Water pump & thermostats have been know to have issues, so if your levels are dropping or you have high or erratic engine temps (the engine fan will come on full speed and you'll be in limp home mode when the engine is hot) get this checked out before damage occurs.

For more information on Tuning your M54l engine please join us in our friendly forum where you can discuss M54 tuning options in more detail with our M54 owners. It would also be worth reading our unbiased BMW tuning articles to get a full grasp of the benefits and drawbacks of each modification.

Please help us improve these tips by sending us your feedback in the comments box below.

We love to hear what our visitors have got up to and which mods work best for them on each model of car. Comments are used to improve the accuracy of these articles which are continually updated.

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